But in reality, however, it will be long time before heihu

in F r e i s t i l 15.04.2019 08:28
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A newborn child holds a hukou Homme Nike Air Force 1 Low Just Do It Blanche Pas Cher , or household registration, certificate. Photo: IC
In China, 13 million people are living with no access to any social welfare or legal identity, as they don't have hukou or household registration. Among them, 60 percent were born in violation of the one-child policy. For these people, a recent notice from the State Council that guarantees their right to hukou is expected to solve their problem finally. But this is no happy ending, how the problems that still remain - especially related to fines - will be solved is still unclear.

Li Xue's name has appeared in lots of places recently nike air max 97 pas cher , as the media reported on her experiences and her family's long-running fight for her rights as a citizen. But one place where it cannot be found is on any official document, as Li Xue lacks a hukou (household registration).

Li Xue was her family's second child, born in violation of the country's family-planning policy. Her parents were not able to pay the 5,000 yuan ($760) fine, known as a "social maintenance fee," and as such Li Xue was never granted a hukou by the Beijing municipal government.

People like her, known as heihu (black registration) nike air max 270 pas cher , cannot access any State-provided services such as education, social welfare or healthcare and as such are marginalized in society.

To integrate these people into society, the State Council said on January 14 that eight kinds of people without hukou will be able to register without any preconditions as long as they can present the necessary documents. This came shortly after another loosening of restrictions, as from January 1 it became legal for all couples to have two children.

This has been welcomed in the media, with many saying that this will allow people that have been denied the basic rights of a citizen to "walk out of the shadows."

There are an estimated 13 million heihu in China, around 60 percent of whom were denied hukou because their families didn't pay the fine after they were born in violation of the one-child policy.

"This will break the link between hukou and fines that has existed for decades," said Yuan Xin nike air vapormax pas cher , a professor at Nankai University and expert in family-planning policy, adding that he thinks the notice will solve a problem left over from a more restrictive time.

But in reality, however, it will be long time before heihu are a thing of the past. Most local governments, who are in charge of granting hukou, are waiting for the central government to lay out more precise regulations before making a move. The parents of heihu are also cautious, as the notice doesn't mention anything about whether they will still have to pay fines.

No celebration yet

Li Xue didn't get a hukou when she was born because her parents could not afford the fines. Most "black children" have a similar story. For decades nike air force 270 pas cher , many local governments limited access to hukou to punish violators of the one-child policy and to press parents to pay fines.

Before 2014, families that had a child outside the rules needed to pay a fine of between two to six times their annual income the previous year. The regulation was changed in 2014, now those who have more children than they are permitted need to pay a fee that is at most three times the local average annual disposable income, which is still very expensive. This makes it particularly pricey in big cities - a Beijing family must pay a fine of around 400,000 yuan.

Yuan Xin explained that local government's enforcement of family planning regulations is a key factor in how their overall performance is assessed, so they have a major motivation to ensure people follow the policy.

This is despite the fact that there is no legal basis for denying children hukou.

"Linking fines to hukou was a way to punish those who violate the law," said Yuan nike air force 1-100 pas cher , "it is not fair to punish children for adults' violations. Now it is a good thing that hukou and fines are being separated."

After the State Council's notice, Guangdong and Liaoning provinces responded by officially delinking fines and hukou registration. Several provinces including East China's Shandong and Fujian implemented such policies as early as 2014 to tackle the heihu problem. In these places those that are born outside the rules can register for a hukou without having to first pay fines - although the fines must be paid eventually.

But as the complicated task of registering the millions of heihu will require a variety of bureaucracies to work together, most regions in China are waiting for guidelines to tell them how to do it first.

While the notice seems to solve Li Xue's problem, she is not excited about it. After decades of fighting for her legal right to a hukou, the 23-year-old finds it hard to be optimistic.

"I haven't seen a sign [of getting a hukou] yet," Li Xue told the Global Times.

Without a hukou, she has never spent a day in school and has had to use her relatives' ID cards to go to the hospital. Since her birth nike sf air force 1 high homme pas cher , her family have been struggling to get her a hukou, through petitions and legal means, over and over again. "It is how my 23 years have passed," she said.

Growing up with this struggle, Li Xue taught herself law. The regulations are on the tip of her tongue when she talks, showing her familiarity with them. When asked why her family did not just "buy" a hukou for her later, she replied nike sf air force 1 high pas cher , "First of all, that is illegal," adding, "I want to get a hukou legally."

She cited the hukou regulations, which say all Chinese citizens should have hukou, without mentioning any preconditions. "Its link with the fines is illegal."

Earlier last month, she handed in a letter about her situation to the Ministry of Public Security nike sf air force 1 mid homme pas cher , before the heihu notice came out, but hasn't received a reply yet.

Wu Xiaofang, who has a 2-year-old second child without a hukou, said she asked a local police station wheThe modern touch that w. Cheap Vapormax Cheap Air Max Cheap Air Max Cheap Air Max Shoes Cheap Air Vapormax Cheap Vapormax White Cheap Vapormax Shoes Cheap Vapormax Flyknit Moc Cheap Air Max 90 Shoes Cheap Nike Air Max 90 Womens

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